"'A Little Touch of Buchenwald': America's Secret Radiation Experiments", This page was last edited on 15 February 2021, at 09:06. "Hypnosis comes of age". Consultants should at the end of evaluation make an evaluation report which will facilitate accountability, lessons learnt and improvement of the project or program being evaluated. Because MKULTRA records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKULTRA materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950. [182] Later studies showed the artificial blood caused a significant increase in the risk of heart attacks and death. The Research Methods Videos database contains hours of tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process. When this approach is followed in analyzing an, answered include which actions are inherently good? In 1971, Stanford University psychologist Philip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford prison experiment in which twenty-four male students were randomly assigned roles of prisoners and guards in a mock prison situated in the basement of the Stanford psychology building. The consultants' recommendations should be backed by results of evaluation. 28 of the original 399 men had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children were born with congenital syphilis. [83] Nasal radium irradiation became a standard medical treatment and was used in over two and a half million Americans. To manage, boundaries set within an organization. 2.3.1 Why businesses and individuals should act ethically. [34][35][36][37] A lawsuit has been launched against Johns Hopkins University, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Rockefeller Foundation for alleged involvement in the study. [63], In Alaska, starting in August 1955, the AEC selected a total of 102 Eskimo natives and Athapascan Indians who would be used to study the effects of radioactive iodine on thyroid tissue, particularly in cold environments. Does it. Being ethical, as well for example those who are unethical but are free, and. appear to be very successful in the eyes of the public. In May 1955 over 300,000 uninfected mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were dropped over parts of the U.S. state of Georgia to determine if the air-dropped mosquitoes could survive to take meals from humans. or in a few cases through spinal punctures". The article questions whether codes of conduct, regular performance and audit reviews or other mechanisms to maintain ethics inhibit employees' right to moral autonomy. "[163] The device, dubbed "pain ray" by its critics, was rejected for fielding in Iraq due to Pentagon fears that it would be used as an instrument of torture. Both internal and external evaluations serve the purpose but in general an evaluation should have truthfulness, credibility or beauty, and justice as standards for the process. [116][117][118] The purpose of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that stated, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self preservation?" In 1953, the CIA placed several of its interrogation and mind-control programs under the direction of a single program, known by the code name MKULTRA, after CIA director Allen Dulles complained about not having enough "human guinea pigs to try these extraordinary techniques". Stanley also performed various eugenics experiments, and forced sterilizations on San Quentin prisoners. In this paper it was noted that organizations and individual have a role to play in ensuring ethical business and individual conduct. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. In 1941, at the University of Michigan, virologists Thomas Francis, Jonas Salk and other researchers deliberately infected patients at several Michigan mental institutions with the influenza virus by spraying the virus into their nasal passages. Evaluation recommendations by the consultant should be presented clearly, concisely and in order of priority. Transformational leadership: Industrial, [13][14], In the 1880s, in Hawaii, a Californian physician working at a hospital for lepers injected six girls under the age of 12 with syphilis. The amount of radioactive phosphorus-32 injected into some of the patients, 500 microcuries (19 MBq), was 50 times the "acceptable" dose for a healthy individual; for people with severe burns, this likely led to significantly increased death rates. [116][131][132] Wolff requested that the CIA provide him any information they could find regarding "threats, coercion, imprisonment, deprivation, humiliation, torture, 'brainwashing', 'black psychiatry', and hypnosis, or any combination of these, with or without chemical agents." ", Experiments in Torture: Human Subject Research and Experimentation in the "Enhanced" Interrogation Program, Outside Academic Experts Respond to Experiments in Torture, Complaint to Office of Human Research Protections Regarding Evidence of CIA Violations of Common Rule, Experiments in Torture: Medical Group Accuses CIA of Carrying Out Illegal Human Experimentation, Accounting for Torture: Being Faithful to our Values, "Medical Ethics Lapses Cited in Interrogations", United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, "The Senate Committee's Report on the C.I.A. Such tests have occurred throughout American history, but particularly in the 20th century. [31][32] The study continued at Stateville Penitentiary for 29 years. [83][84][85] Similar experiments were performed on over 7,000 U.S. Army and Navy personnel during World War II. Many of these experiments were performed to help develop more effective torture and interrogation techniques for the U.S. military and intelligence agencies, and to develop techniques for Americans to resist torture at the hands of enemy nations and organizations. Several dilemma causing ethical problems include; Ethical problems or challenges in busines, dilemmas. When these inmates later left prison and had children, at least four of them had offspring born with birth defects. The AEC also recruited Hanford volunteers to ingest milk contaminated with I-131 during this time. [17][18] In 1906, Professor Richard Strong of Harvard University intentionally infected 24 Filipino prisoners with cholera, which had somehow become contaminated with plague. [124] Project BLUEBIRD researchers dosed over 7,000 U.S. military personnel with LSD, without their knowledge or consent, at the Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. Women coming to a clinic in San Antonio, Texas, to prevent pregnancies were not told they were participating in a research study or receiving placebos. Grove Press. Lee, M. A., Shlain, B. Estabrooks, G.H. His cremated remains were surreptitiously acquired by Argonne National Laboratory Center for Human Radiobiology in 1975 without the consent of surviving relatives. [38], In 1950, in order to conduct a simulation of a biological warfare attack, the U.S. Navy sprayed large quantities of the bacteria Serratia marcescens – considered harmless at the time – over the city of San Francisco during a project called Operation Sea-Spray. [183], During the Nuremberg Medical Trials, several of the Nazi doctors and scientists who were being tried for their human experiments cited past unethical studies performed in the United States in their defense, namely the Chicago malaria experiments conducted by Dr. Joseph Goldberger. Use of consultants in evaluation brings independence and professionalism in project evaluation. [17][54] Subsequent investigation led to a report by Andrew Conway Ivy, who testified that the research was "an example of human experiments which were ideal because of their conformity with the highest ethical standards of human experimentation". [89], Early in the Cold War, in studies known as Project GABRIEL and Project SUNSHINE, researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia tried to determine how much nuclear fallout would be required to make the Earth uninhabitable. The participants adapted to their roles beyond Zimbardo's expectations with prison guards exhibiting authoritarian status and psychologically abusing the prisoners who were passive in their acceptance of the abuse. 2011. Rous called the experiment "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science. in. Many of the experiments involved testicular implants, where Stanley would take the testicles out of executed prisoners and surgically implant them into living prisoners. This claim has been cited in a number of later sources, although these added no further supporting evidence. Some others were sponsored by government agencies or rogue elements thereof, including the Centers for Disease Control, the United States military, and the Central Intelligence Agency, or by private corporations involved with military activities. 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